## Determine the sample mean and variance for the Yield Strengths using MATLAB.

Part 1
10 materials samples have been tested, with their Yield Strengths being recorded. This data is available on Blackboard, along with a script to load the data.
1. Determine the sample mean and variance for the Yield Strengths using MATLAB.
2. Determine the 95% confidence interval for the Yield Strength of the material.
3. The materials supplier claims that the material has a Yield Strength of 200 MPa. Conduct a hypothesis test to see if there is sufficient evidence to suggest that this Yield Strength is incorrect. Use the comparison between Ttest and tN-1,1-a/2 for your hypothesis test.
4. If the sample mean and variance stayed the same, but there were 50 samples to test instead of 10, do we get the same result from the hypothesis test? Explain your result.
Part 2
Statistics were gathered on the traffic through a street. It is your job to determine the probability of certain events with the use of probability distributions. Make sure that all answer are solved by hand and are verified using MATLAB (code must be provided).
1. During the testing time, it was found that cars pass by at an average rate of 100 per hour, and the time at which cars passed was independant. What is the probability that there will more than 2 cars pass through in 1 minute?
2. What is the probability that the time between two cars is less than 1 minute?
3. What is the probability that there will be less that 1 minute between cars four times in a row?
4. The speed of cars has been found to be approximately normally distributed. The average speed of a car is 60km/h, while the variance is 5km2/h2 . Given a speeding fine will be given to those over 63km/h, what is the probability of a random car getting a speeding fine?
5. What is the probability that there are less than two speeding fines given in 15 minutes?

## Solar Thermal Plant Design assignment

ENGG378/948 Sustainable Energy Technologies
Solar Thermal Plant Design assignment
Due: Friday semester week 13 by 4pm
Submission: Online through the subject e-learning site
Your assignment task is to design a 10MWe solar thermal power plant for the Illawarra region. The design is to be at the conceptual, not detailed design level. Discussion of technical and non-technical issues related to siting and generation should be included.
This is a group assignment to be completed in teams of 5 or 6 students. Teams must be selected by the end of the week 3 tutorial. Group member lists should be sent to the subject coordinator. A group discussion board will be set up where weekly minutes of meetings must be uploaded from week 4. A template is provided for this purpose. Any later claims related to poor group function and group or team member problems must be substantiated by the meeting minutes. If group problems cannot be resolved during semester, marks may be adjusted to reflect individual contributions.
You are to present your design in a report of between 6,000-8,000 words. The report is to be submitted by one of the group members through the subject e-learning site as a pdf file with active links to all online sources cited. A word-count and all group member’s names and student numbers should be clearly visible on the first page.
Some of the key elements that should be considered in the design and included in your report are:
• Siting of the plant
• Calculations and data related to the solar resource available at the site
• Type of solar collector determined most suitable (with accompanying justification)
• Solar tracking scheme utilised (if determined feasible)
• Size of the collector (mirror area, pipe lengths etc)
• Energy storage capacity requirements
• Schematic of the plant layout
Please note that any submissions in groups smaller or larger than that specified will not be accepted unless prior approval has been obtained. Assignments will be automatically run through the plagiarism detection program Turnitin upon submission through the subject e-learning site. Harvard style referencing should be used in the report.
Assessment guidelines:
Minutes of meetings (submitted through the discussion board, not attached to the report) 10%
Report
Evidence of use of sound design processes 20%
Design calculations 20%
Discussion of non-technical design issues 20%
Plant layout schematic 10%
Clarity of expression (spelling, grammar, document structure etc) 10%
Referencing (suitability, correct, consistent use of Harvard style etc) 10%

## Hotrod and the Case of the Lethal Floormats Case Study

PRS303 Hotrod and the Case of the Lethal Floormats Case Study
This assignment is worth 50 marks which will be converted to a mark out of 35 marks. You must upload your submission to Turnitin after registering in Turnitin. This assignment is due Friday 14th October 11-59pm.
Exercise caution and if necessary lock your floormats in the boot of your car. If any driver finds their Hotrod vehicle accelerating unintentionally, they should place the vehicle’s transmission in Neutral, apply the brakes, steer off the road and shut off the engine. Hotrod will get around to servicing everybody’s car that has been recalled and we will fix this minor problem. This is the advice that has been given to Hotrod drivers worldwide with regard to a so called “minor problem” that has killed a number of Hotrod car owners and their passengers. A significant period of time has elapsed between the death of Sam Markson and three family members and Hotrod’s decision to recall a number of its vehicles.
It started with a single, horrifying car crash in southern California in August, 2003. After two separate recalls covering 7.5 million vehicles in 2006, Hotrod was forced to announce it was suspending the sale of eight of its best-selling vehicles, a move that is likely to cost the company and its dealers a minimum of \$54 million a day in lost sales revenue.
How did a company that became one of the world’s largest and most profitable automaker on the back of a rock-solid reputation for quality and dependability find itself at the center of the biggest product recall since the Firestone tyre fiasco? And what does this mean for Hotrod’s brand image in its largest and most profitable market?
Here’s how the crisis unfolded:
August 28, 2003: Off-duty Highway Patrol officer Sam Markson is traveling on Highway 125 in Santitree, Kelly Valley, with family members, when the 2003 Buick ES350 he is driving suddenly accelerates out of control, hits another car, tumbles down an embankment and catches fire. While the car is careening down the highway at speeds estimated to exceed 100 mph, one of the occupants calls 921 and reports that the car has -no brakes.- All in the car are killed in the ensuing crash.
September 14, 2003: Preliminary reports from Hotrod and local authorities indicate that the Buick, which had been on loan from Harry Haywood Buick, where Markson’s personal Buick vehicle was being serviced, may have had the wrong floor mats installed, interfering with the accelerator pedal.
September 29, 2003: Hotrod announces it is recalling the floor mats on 4.2 million Hotrod and in particular, Buick vehicles. The company advises owners to remove their floor mats and place them in the car boot and directs dealers to use zip ties to secure the floor mats in their vehicles so they could not interfere with the accelerator pedal.
October 2, 2003: Newly installed Hotrod CEO Takashimi Ho publically apologizes to the Markson family members killed in the accident and to every customer affected by the recall.
October 18, 2003: The Tribune publishes the first of several stories concerning claims of unintended acceleration in Hotrod vehicles. The Tribune article reveals there have been nine separate HSA investigations into claims of unintended acceleration by Hotrod vehicles in the past decade. Two involved floor mats, and one a trim piece on the Hotrod Sienna minivan. Six were dismissed due to lack of evidence. The Tribune story also claims at least five unintended acceleration cases involving Hotrod products in the past two years had resulted in fatalities and that -hundreds- of complaints had been filed with the government. A Hotrod spokesperson admits there is no safety override programmed into its computer to disable the accelerator pedal when the brake pedal is pressed, but says Hotrod is considering adding one, as well as modifying the pedals themselves to keep them from getting caught on the floor mats. The story also reveals the Buick’ push-button starter must be depressed for at least three seconds to shut down the engine when the vehicle is in drive.
October 25, 2003: The results of an investigation by local authorities and the Highway Safety Administration (HSA) reveal a set of rubber floor mats designed for the Buick RX 470 SUV had been placed over the top of the ES 350’s stock carpeted floor mats and that the accelerator pedal had become jammed against them, causing the car to accelerate out of control. HSA notes brakes were nearly destroyed on the car and that the accelerator pedal was -bonded- to the floor mat. HSA also points out the accelerator pedal on the car was solidly mounted to its stalk, whereas other vehicles use hinged pedals.
October 30, 2003: Hotrod begins sending letters to owners notifying them of an unspecified upcoming recall to fix the unintended acceleration issue. In the letters Hotrod says -no defect exists.-
November 2, 2003: HSA takes the highly unusual step of publicly rebuking Hotrod, calling a company statement re-iterating the comments made in the October letter to owners -inaccurate- and -misleading,- noting that the floor mat recall was an -interim- measure and that it -does not correct the underlying defect.- Hotrod publicly apologizes.
November 4, 2003: Hotrod makes a statement denying media reports a problem exists with its drive-by-wire electronic throttle system. However, to support the claim, Hotrod simply cites a HSA report released two days earlier showing the agency has refused a petition by a Hotrod owner to open a new investigation into Hotrod’s drive-by-wire system. In that report HSA had also revealed it had begun an investigation into Hotrod’s all-weather rubber floor mats in March 2000 after reports of unintended acceleration in 2000 Buick ES 350s. The investigation would later include additional models, and cover a total of 26 claimed unintended acceleration cases, including seven accidents. HSA claimed the investigation was closed after Hotrod recalled the accessory floor mats and redesigned them.
November 8, 2003: The Tribune claims Hotrod had ignored over 1,200 complaints of unintended acceleration over the past few years because HSA had thrown out those reports that claimed the brakes were not capable of stopping the car under an unintended acceleration scenario. In the story a Hotrod spokesman confirms the brakes are not capable of stopping a vehicle accelerating at wide open throttle.
November 16, 2003: Polish and Chinese media reports claim Hotrod has made a deal with HSA over a recall. Hotrod denies any agreement had been reached, but the company admits it had already set aside \$5.6 billion to deal with the issue.
November 25, 2003: Hotrod dealers are instructed to remove the accelerator pedal and shorten it so it cannot interfere with the floor mats. As an -extra measure of confidence,- the company also directs dealers to update the onboard computers on the Hotrod Cudo and Advantage, and Buick ES 350, IS 250 and IS 350 with a new program that overrides the electronic accelerator pedal when the brake pedal is pressed.
November 29, 2003: A new Tribune story claims a number of Hotrod drivers say their vehicles had still accelerated out of control with the floor mats removed. The Tribune also reports complaints of unintended acceleration increased after Hotrod began using its drive-by-wire system in 2002, starting with the ES 300. According to the Tribune, unintended acceleration complaints on Buick ES 300s jumped from an average of 26 per year in 2001 to 132 per year in 2002, and there had been 19 deaths since 2002 related to unintended acceleration in Hotrods, compared with 11 deaths connected to all other automakers combined. The story also notes Hotrod has been investigated for unintended acceleration more than any other automaker, and that 74 of 132 complaints lodged against the 2000 Buick ES 350 were for cases of unintended acceleration. Hotrod has no explanation, but says its drive-by-wire system is not to blame, again citing the November 2 HSA report.
However, the Tribune notes that the agency has only investigated the drive-by-wire system twice in its nine investigations and Hotrod had issued three separate service bulletins for 2002 and 2003 Cudos concerning unintended acceleration issues with the drive-by-wire system. The Tribune says HSA had asked Hotrod to look into an issue with the electronic throttle body on the 2006 Cudo, which Hotrod immediately delegated to the parts supplier. When the supplier reported there was no problem, HSA accepted the finding and quietly closed the report, keeping most of its 74 pages confidential.
December 5, 2003: Following an opinion piece in the Tribune, Hotrod writes a letter to the paper reiterating its stance that the floor mats were the root cause of most unintended acceleration claims. The company defends HSA and its methodology.
December 23, 2003: Another story appears in the Tribune, this time accusing Hotrod of hiding defects from customers and regulators over the past decade. The story notes the company has been fined and rebuked by judges several times for failing to turn over evidence in lawsuits, and that many suits brought against the company have been settled out of court for undisclosed sums of money. It also reveals Hotrod has only fifteen machines worldwide capable of reading onboard data recorders and has often refused to share the information with claimants and law enforcement. Hotrod claims it has been unfairly attacked by the paper, but confirms it only has fifteen data-reading machines and that the software on it is proprietary. Even though many countries have laws specifying the data on the recorder belongs to the vehicle’s owner, Hotrod says it shares information in select cases either as a -community service- or when required to do so by a judge. Hotrod says it is company policy not to use the software to investigate defect claims. Ten lawsuits over unintended acceleration are pending against the company.
December 26, 2003: A Hotrod Advantage crashes into a lake after accelerating out of control. All occupants die. Floor mats are ruled out as a cause because they are found in the boot of the car.
January 11, 2006: Hotrod announced its brake override software fix will be made global as quickly as possible.
January 21, 2006: Hotrod recalls another 2.3 million Hotrod-brand vehicles because of a problem with the accelerator pedal. Hotrod says -a rare set of conditions which may cause the accelerator pedal to become harder to depress, slower to return or, in the worst case, stuck in a partially depressed position.- The company says the new recall is unrelated to the floor mat recall, but also announces 1.7 million Hotrod vehicles would be affected by both recalls. No Buick models were included in this recall, though the company doesn’t say why, nor does it announce any kind of repair for the problem. Meanwhile, Hotshot News reports a fresh unintended acceleration incident involving a 2000 Hotrod Advantage. Although the engine was racing without any pressure on the accelerator pedal, owner Kelvin Hagg of New Hampshire gets the vehicle to a local Hotrod dealer, where it is confirmed the floor mats were properly installed.
January 23, 2006: AFP reports Hotrod may recall 1 million vehicles in China for the same problem.
January 26, 2006: Hotrod announces it is immediately halting the sale of all models affected by the pedal recall, and that it will shut down assembly lines for those models at four plants for one week -to assess and coordinate activities.- Hotrod does not say why it has waited seven days to stop sales after announcing the recall.
January 27, 2006: Transportation Minister Sammy Hood tells radio station 2NACC the government asked Hotrod to stop selling the recalled vehicles. Hotrod confirms Hood’s statement. Other media reports claim Hotrod has quietly informed its dealers and factories the problem lies with pedals made by supplier CT Company of Elkhart, India. Buick and Scion models, it turns out, use pedals made by Japanese supplier Denso, hence their exemption from the recall. The problem is said to occur after 55,000 miles, though the cause is still under investigation.
A GM recall on the Vibe, which is a re-bodied Hotrod Matrix, identifies condensation in the pedal’s electronic sensor as the culprit. In response, CT Company issues its own statement stating it has -no knowledge of any accidents or injuries- resulting from what it calls -this rare potential condition.- CT says according to information from Hotrod -we are aware of fewer than a dozen instances where this condition occurred, and in no instance did the accelerator actually become stuck in a partially depressed condition.- But CT also says it has been actively working with Hotrod to develop a new pedal -to meet tougher specifications from Hotrod.- CT claims the newly designed pedal is now tested, and parts are beginning to arrive at some Hotrod factories.
Auto News estimates that Hotrod dealers could lose as much as \$1.5 million in profit every week of the sales freeze. Hotrod shares have dropped more than 15% over the past day and a half since the freeze was announced and CT’s shares dropped 5.4%. Hotrod notifies HSA that it will expand its November recall to cover an additional 1.1 million vehicles. The recall now includes the Hotrod Ventzal and more model years of the Hotrod Lander, as well as the Vibe.
The Recalls, In Detail
The first recall, directing owners to remove the floor mats from their vehicles and place them in the trunk, or to have the floor mats zip-tied in place by a Hotrod dealer, covers 4.2 million Hotrod and Buick models over seven model years.
The second recall covers 2.3 million vehicles which together account for over 50% of Hotrod’s regional sales.
In addition, 1.7 million vehicles are covered by both recalls. All 2003 and 2006 Vibes, which are mechanically identical to the Hotrod Matrix and built in the same plant, are also affected.
Hotrod says recalled cars will have their accelerator pedals replaced with the new, redesigned unit. Until their car is serviced, owners are advised to remove floor mats and to report any problems to their local Hotrod dealer. Hotrod advises any driver who finds their vehicle accelerating unintentionally should place the vehicle’s transmission in Neutral, apply the brakes, steer off the road and shut off the engine. Owners of vehicles equipped with a push-button starter rather than a traditional key should be aware that the button must be depressed for 3 seconds to shut the engine off if the car is not in Park.
*Adapted from Kenzie, J & Evantalls, M (2006) The Crisis of Hotrod, Motoring News, July.
Required:
Hotrod needs to restore its reputation. They need to reassure the public and in particular purchasers of their range of vehicles that (a) Hotrod have thoroughly investigated the problems that have been brought to their attention (b) Hotrod have a strategy in place to remedy their problems with their vehicles and (c) assure the public that they can be confident in the Hotrod brand and the safety of Hotrod vehicles.
1. Write a Press Release that conveys this information and includes all of the elements of a good press release. 20 marks
2. Provide advice to Hotrod’s CEO and senior management on the strategies to implement in order to recover their loss in reputation. 15 marks
3. Analyse the actions of Hotrod in relation to image restoration. Students should consider:
(a) Do you find Hotrod’s explanation credible? Explain. 5 marks
(b) Do you believe Hotrod is telling the truth? Provide support from the case study for your view. 5 marks
(c) Do you think that Hotrod is acting in the public interest? Fully explain your answer.

## It was part of the same research project that led to the interview with John that we examined in Week 8 on VoiceThread. Please read this excerpt carefully and:

Part Three:  Analysis of Qualitative Data

Below is an excerpt from an interview done with a college student named Chris.  It was part of the same research project that led to the interview with John that we examined in Week 8 on VoiceThread.  Please read this excerpt carefully and:

• Make note of at least four (4) of the concepts found in Chris’s interview by writing them into the transcript. Please write the concepts into the transcript, right after the sentences where you think they apply.  Put parentheses around the words you put in and highlight them.  (20 points)

• Then, choose one (1) of the four concepts you named and write a few sentences that elaborate on the meaning that this has and what you think about Chris based on finding this concept in his discussion of his life at college. Please put this below the box that contains Chris’s words. (10 points)

What you are thinking about here is the basic level of coding – open codes.

Note:  Chris talks about “the Union”.  That is the main student cafeteria on his college campus.

Chris

Ever since the summer, since I was with all these environmentalists, I started buying a lot of organic produce when I was in Hawaii.  I learned how to cook — I never knew how to cook!

In the beginning of the summer I found out I was allergic to rice, corn and beef.  I took the food allergy test.  Level 6 is the highest allergy, they insert these molecules in your blood system and they see if there’s a reaction, rise in white blood cell count.  So beef is about 3 out of 6 and my corn and rice are 2 out of 6, so it isn’t terrible but it still is something.  I eat them regularly… and if I eat level 2 and 1 all together it’s going to be super crazy and I can’t handle it.  Before this I would just eat everything.

So I feel calmer, like even when I’m stressed out I don’t feel as like my body can’t control, I have more control even when I don’t get enough sleep I can be more relaxed and calm.  That means I do a lot of cooking on my own and that takes a lot of time, grocery shopping, cooking, washing the dishes.

The Union is not the best place in the world… I never volunteer to go to the Union.  I do try to buy ready-made so that I don’t spend so much time cooking and preparing because I do have a lot of work but it’s sometimes nice to relax and cook a little bit and also know what I’m eating because I have so many weird allergies.  I also like to eat organic produce.  I have a 4-cubic-foot fridge so it’s pretty hefty, pretty large.  I have food in there all the time.  I also have fresh fruit and cereal and soy milk in the morning, peanut butter or almond butter and whole grain, a lot of fiber… So that’s taking a lot of time.

## apply Kotter’s eight (8) steps of change management to an HR situation you have selected for chang

Using the company that your instructor previously approved, apply Kotter’s eight (8) steps of change management to an HR situation you have selected for change. You will address all eight (8) of the Kotter steps, developing an action plan for each step. Use a tablet, smartphone, laptop, desktop, or traditional video recorder to record a maximum of a five to seven (5-7) minute dynamic video on the topics detailed below. Alternatively, you may submit a four to six (4-6) page paper instead of the video submission.

Note: If you are using a tablet or smartphone you will need to email the video file to yourself, then save it to a computer in order to upload to Blackboard. You may want to upload your video to a file sharing service, such as Dropbox, if your email will not let you send a large video file. Dropbox is accessible from all smartphones and tablets from the Dropbox app.

Tags: HRM560, Organizational Change

Description: First Name, Last Name – HRM560 Assignment 3 (Date Uploaded ex. 11-14-2014)

Prepare and present a video that is a maximum of five to seven (5-7) minutes OR write a four to six (4-6) page paper in which you:

Ascertain how each of the steps applies to your specific organization. Develop a strategy that illustrates how you would address each of the eight (8) stages of change: Establishing a sense of urgency Creating coalition Developing vision and strategy Communicating the vision Empowering broad-based action Generating short-term wins Consolidating gains and producing more change Anchoring new approaches into the culture Use at least four (4) quality academic resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and other similar Websites do not qualify as academic resources. Note: If you choose to submit a video presentation, please also submit a one (1) page summary of your presentation.

If you choose the written paper, your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions. Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length. The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

Compare theories of change management and select an appropriate theory for an organization change. Analyze diagnostic models relevant to various aspects of the change management process. Use technology and information resources to research issues in managing organizational change. Write clearly and concisely about managing organizational change using proper writing mechanics. Identify organizational changes that link to vision.

## Habits as Change Levers

Read the article titled “Habits as Change Levers”. Reflecting on step eight (8), Institutionalize the Change, identify a change that you implemented or was implemented at an organization with which you are familiar. What impact does an organization’s corporate culture have on maintaining and sustaining change? What steps need to be taken to make ensure that a newly implemented change becomes part of the organizational culture? Read the article titled “Sustaining Change in Manufacturing Companies”. Next, review the list of eleven (11) factors which impact the sustainability of change. Reflect on a change that you implemented or was implemented at an organization with which you are familiar that was not sustainable. Comment on the factors of sustaining change that were not included in the change process. How would you address the key factors which the organization missed and ultimately lead to the change being reversed

## How has the prevalence of information technology led to changes in cybercrimes against persons?

Create a 7- to 10-slide Microsoft® PowerPoint® presentation with detailed speaker notes. Use complete sentences, with correct grammar and punctuation, to fully explain each slide as if you were giving an in-person presentation.

Include the following in your presentation:

• How has the prevalence of information technology led to changes in cybercrimes against persons? Provide specific examples. • What technologically advanced equipment is used to prevent and investigate cybercrimes against persons? Provide specific examples.

## CCE’s Extinction Continental Communications Enterprises (CCE) was a computerized communications company that had been in business for 35 years.

Each scenario requires a 1-page minimum response.

Assignment 1: CCE’s Extinction Continental Communications Enterprises (CCE) was a computerized communications company that had been in business for 35 years. The company had remained comfortably profitable by manufacturing and distributing communications systems made entirely from parts supplied by a variety of international vendors. Carolyn, the director of finance, was pleased with the price that she was getting from local and foreign vendors.

No strategic management team had been put into place because the company remained profitable without changing the way they operated, with the exception of updating the systems when necessary. For the same reason, the marketing strategies did not substantially change from year to year. In other words, CCE was “coasting” without the need for strategic planning and, according to the management team, doing a very credible job of that.

The CEO exercised a life of semi-retirement; he was either on vacation or on the golf course most of the time. The management team enjoyed the luxury of overseeing what they thought had been done right for many years and making sure that business continued to be conducted “as usual.” While the management team was coasting, one of their competitors was devoting considerable time and effort to negotiating lower prices from vendors. The competitor’s management made a global announcement that they were going to produce comparable products to the CCE line at a substantial savings to the customers. This competitor also launched an effective and carefully planned public relations campaign that caught most of CCE’s market share in the process.

At that point, it was too late for CCE to make the necessary adjustments fast enough to regain the customer base. A year later, CCE declared bankruptcy.

Your assignment is to describe the two (2) strategies CCE did not utilize that could have helped save the business: competitive intelligence and positioning strategy. Define each strategy, what each includes and involves, and the way each one could have made a difference in CCE’s long-range success.

Assignment 2: MBO

ABC company management has decided to revamp their performance appraisal system. As human resources director, you have been tasked with outlining a new program. The goal is to move every business unit to an MBO performance system. The company’s goals as a whole have been set for the year. Now it is time to deliver the program to the various business units. The first area being converted is the sales department. To prepare for the change, you are tasked with the following.

1. Define an MBO performance appraisal system, including a description of its six (6) steps.

2. Identify and describe the three (3) areas where there may be problems implementing an MBO system.

3. Include one (1) possible solution to overcome each of the identified problems that is directly related to implementing the system with salespeople.

## Candidates are required to adhere to the Assessment Guidelines in their submission

ASSESSMENT C1: Mind Map and a Critical Review
Marking Guide
• Candidates are required to adhere to the Assessment Guidelines in their submission
• Candidates must produce a flyer that is a minimum of A3 in size and submitted via Moodle.
• No hard copies of flyer are to be submitted.
• Follow the critical review structure described in Part Two
• Reference used must be no older than 5 years
• Maximum of 400 words per review
• A selection of web sites, books and journals as sources for gathering of information is required not just dependant on web site information.
This assignment requires the candidate to create a Mind Map and then find 3 articles from the ideas highlighted from the mind map and review these using the guidelines learnt about evidence based practice in the PPT.
Part One
Construct a mind map about nursing care associated with diabetes using the process of creating mind maps to encourage the process of brainstorming.
This mind map must contain the following –
• Main idea either word or diagram
• Branches coming of this which each represent a single word that relates to the main topic.
• Sub-branches that stem from the main branches to further expand on ideas and concepts. These sub-branches will also contain words that elaborate on the topic of the branch it stems from.
Part Two
Using the links identified during the PowerPoint on how to find relevant information find 3 articles that will support your ideas from the mind map and critically review them.
Read the articles carefully and record your impressions and note sections suitable for quoting. The critical review should consider the following
• Who is the intended audience?
• What is the author’s purpose? To survey and summarize research on a topic? To present an argument that builds on past research? To refute another writer’s argument?
• Does the author define important terms?
• Is the information in the article fact or opinion? (Facts can be verified, while opinions arise from interpretations of facts.) Does the information seem well-researched or is it unsupported?
• What are the author’s central arguments or conclusions? Are they clearly stated? Are they supported by evidence and analysis?
• If the article reports on an experiment or study, does the author clearly outline methodology and the expected result?
• Is the article lacking information or argumentation that you expected to find?
• Is the article organized logically and easy to follow?
• Does the writer’s style suit the intended audience? Is the style stilted or unnecessarily complicated?
• Is the author’s language objective or charged with emotion and bias?
• If illustrations or charts are used, are they effective in presenting information
The critical review should follow the following structure –
The first paragraph may contain:
• a statement of your thesis
• the author’s purpose in writing the article
• comments on how the article relates to other work on the same subject
• information about the author’s reputation or authority in the field
The body of the review should:
• follow the logical development of ideas that you mapped out in your outline
• include quotations from the article which illustrate your main ideas
The concluding paragraph may:
Reference
University of Toronto Mississauga Library – Hazel McCallion Academic Learning Centre 2009, Queens University, accessed 16th January 2014, http://library.queensu.ca/inforef/criticalreview

## Data is created as a side-product of practice or as a result of targeted activity.

Project methodology
Data is created as a side-product of practice or as a result of targeted activity. While this data is used for the primary business of the organisation/practice, it can be also used to extract business intelligence. One of the frameworks, used in the industry is Cross-Industry Standard Process for data Mining (CRISP-DM). This process has several phases:

Before you start any attempt to collect/analyse data you need to get a good idea why you are doing the exercise – understand the purpose. The main components are:
– Initial situation/problem etc. (…we have crowded emergency departments (ED)…)
• Assess situation
– Inventory of resources (personnel, data, software)
– Requirements (e.g. deadline), constraints (e.g. legal issues), risks
Understanding your business will support determining the scope of the project, the timeframe, budget etc.
Data understanding
Next step is to look at what data is needed (available) and write data definitions (so that we know exactly what we talking about – this is very important for aggregation of apparently same data: the definitions may not be the same!).
• Collect initial data
– Acquire data listed in project resources
– Report locations of data, methods used to acquire them, …
• Describe data
– Examine -surface- properties
– Report for example format, quantity of data, … ? Data dictionary
• Explore data
– Examine central tendencies, distributions, …
– Report insights suggesting examination of particular data subsets (data selection)
• Verify data quality
– Is the data complete? (missing values)
– Is the data correct? (integrity constraints)
– Is the data noisy or are there outliers?
NB: this is an initial exploration – scouting the problem space. It helps you to understand what data is available and it helps to align your approach to the business objectives and the data available. At the same time – this phase can help to verify, whether the project is viable (feasibility) and refine the project scope, budget, resources etc.
Data preparation
Typically any data you get is not in the right format for analysis (it was collected for other purposes such as providing care or managing the practice) and needs to be pre-processed.
• Select data
– Relevance to the data mining goals
– Quality of data
– Technical constraints, e.g. limits on data volume
• Clean data
– Raise data quality if possible
– Selection of clean subsets
– Insertion of defaults
• Construct data
– Derived attributes (e.g. age = NOW – DOB)
• Integrate data
– Merge data in different sources
– Merge data within source (tuple merging)
• Format data
– Data must conform to requirements of initially selected mining tools (e.g. input data is different for Weka, and different to Disco).
Modelling
This phase goes hand-in-hand with the data preparation. Here you select what analytic techniques you are planning to use, in which sequence etc. Once you have the analysis design, you execute it.
• Select modelling technique
– Make selection during business understanding phase concrete
– E.g., neural network with back propagation
• Generate test design
– Separate test data from training data (in case of supervised learning)
– Define quality measures for the model
• Build model
– List parameters and chosen values
– Assess model
At the end of the Data preparation-Modelling phase you have a set of results coming from the analysis (you have a model). NB: this needs to be assessed and evaluated form the technical point of view (to mitigate issues such as overfitting etc.).
Evaluation
Here you evaluate the results (model) form the business perspective (Did we learn something new? How do the results fit into knowledge we already have? etc.).
• Evaluate results from business perspective
– Test models on test applications if possible
• Review process
– Determine if there are any important factors or tasks that have been overlooked
• Determine next steps
NB: this phase leads to change in business understanding (and starts a new cycle of business intelligence), is viable as-is and can be deployed, or both.
Deployment
In this phase you conclude the project.
• Plan deployment
– Determine how results (discovered knowledge) are effectively used to reach business objectives
• Plan monitoring and maintenance
– Results become part of day-to-day business and therefore need to be monitored and maintained.
• Final report
• Project review
– Assess what went right and what went wrong; debriefing

Assignment
The project will be split into 2 parts. Assignment 1 will be the planning part, assignment 2 will execute your plan.
Assignment 1
Assignment 1 will require you to achieve workable level of business understanding, look at the data and achieve a workable level of data understanding. From this material you will write a project plan. This will contain:
• Justification of your project (why you propose to do the BI/data-mining) – here you demonstrate workable business understanding
• Plan what to do:
o With data (here you will be able to demonstrate your data understanding)
? Data transformations
? Data cleansing?
o Methods you plan to apply in your analysis (justify your choice!)
Assignment 2
Assignment 2 will be execution of your plan. This report will contain:
• Background and motivation (recycling of the introduction from Assig1)
• Methods used with justification (mostly recycled from Assig1, but you may change/improve)
• Interpretation of results in terms of:
o Data quality
• Conclusions and recommendations (we discuss this later)
How the components of the topic map to CRISP-DM – see below.
Topic
Emergency department overcrowding is a serious problem. Overcrowding is associated with inferior clinical outcomes (such as mortality), as well as in quality and timeliness of therapy . In this semester you will be looking at analysing processes in an emergency department. The basic model for a patient moving across the ED is as follows:
Write a brief justification of a project measuring times of arrival, triage, clinical care, and departure. This will require for you to find a few resources and get a basic idea how an emergency department operates.
Your work will serve as Introduction/Background section.
Analysis of data
You will be given a dataset of realistic data measuring the time points of ED processes in an institution in NSW. Your task will be to have a look at the data (with your understanding of ED processes from your previous reading) and:
• Extract a data dictionary from the NSW document (will be provided) and add description of any data you construct.
• Select which data you will be using for your analysis (and justify your choice)
• Construct data (e.g. duration between “triage” and “seen by clinician”) – justify why you need this data, and describe in detail (in data dictionary) how you are going to construct the data point (formulas, …)
• Explore the data (e.g. basic statistics, graphs…)
• Comment on data quality
• Make your choices on analytic methods (basic stats, process mining [Disco] etc.) and justify your choices (you are asked to use process mining – think about why it is useful – other methods are up to you).
• Formatting/re-formatting data – what changes need to be done for methods you apply (different input is expected for statistical packages, and different for Disco).
• Write an analysis plan
• Perform the analysis as you propose it taking into account any comments you may have got.
Final report
In the final report you will take the results of your analysis, interpret what you have found (comments on what the results may mean in context of what you learned about the ED; design visualisation of your results), and write conclusions and recommendations for action, future analytic project or both.
Your final document will contain ALL sections form all previous parts – you copy the material over, re-organise it, and – I suggest – improve.
Formatting
Your document is supposed to be aimed to senior management of a hospital – adjust your style accordingly. While you have to do 2 assignments, these are stepping stones towards writing one document at the end – write individual parts in a way you can recycle them in later stages
Please do not write lengthy introductions (your audience is senior management of a hospital !).
Use references only if you need them (no merit in “backfilling” references). Preferred format is Harvard, but you can use any other format if you use it consistently throughout the entire document.
Word count – you use any amount of words you need. No penalty will be for exceeding the word count.